Mineral, groundmass and bulk rock chemical analyses of samples from the Tongariro Volcanic Complex were made to estimate depths of magma reservoirs for selected eruptive deposits. The sample set consists of two units from the 11,000 cal. years bp Mangamate Formation (Te Rato and Wharepu) and more recent deposits from near 1717 cal. years bp (Ngauruhoe and Red Crater) to 1975 (Ngauruhoe). The depths of crystallization were determined by established thermobarometers. Results show that the Mangamate eruptions of Te Rato and Wharepu originated from a deeper magma reservoir of about 28–35 km and likely ascended rapidly, whereas explosive eruption deposits from Ngauruhoe have depths of crystallization in the lower to mid-crust or about 7 to 22 km depth. A Red Crater lava flow had a possible magma reservoir depth from 4 to 9 km. The different eruptions sampled for this study tapped different reservoir levels, and the oldest and largest eruptions were sourced from the deepest reservoir.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology