The purpose of this research is to develop a hands-on spatial geometry learning system to facilitate the learning of geometry. The development of this system was based on Duval's four critical elements of geometric learning: perceptual apprehension, sequential apprehension, operative apprehension, and discursive apprehension. The system offers support to high school students in the process of spatial geometry problem-solving. It provides a hands-on approach for manipulating spatial figures, thereby developing the students' visualization skills and ability to conceptualize images. The experiment comprised a total of 58 participants from different classes with the experimental group using the proposed learning system, whereas the control group using the traditional pencil-and-paper approach. The study investigated the effects of the hands-on system on the perceptual, sequential, and operative apprehension, and on overall spatial geometry scores and learning attitude. The results indicated improvements on effective learning and a higher level of sequential, operative apprehension, and overall spatial geometry scores from the experimental group.
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