The issue of individual differences among learners has thus far received the most attention from education researchers. Many teachers strive to develop a learning strategy with significant effect on the majority of learners. Through literature analysis, this study found that not only could Augmented Reality (AR) improve learning effectiveness, it could also reduce the impact of individual differences on learning outcomes. Therefore, this study designed a set of AR-aided teaching systems to help teachers supplement curriculum content using AR. Sixty-six participants from elementary schools were involved in this study. The results confirmed that AR can help learners to achieve better learning outcomes, and can effectively improve learning achievement in non-high-scoring groups, enabling them to perform closer to those in high-scoring groups and reducing the gap in overall learning level. This study also discovered that technological barriers could reduce the benefits of AR in teaching contexts. Authoring tools with low operating thresholds are valuable for AR-aided teaching systems.