We here present a planarized solid-state chemical reaction that can produce transition metal monochalcogenide (TMMC) 2D crystals with large lateral extent and finely controllable thickness down to individual layers. The enhanced lateral diffusion of a gaseous reactant at the interface between a solid precursor and graphene was found to provide a universal route towards layered TMMCs of different compositions. A unique layer-by-layer growth mechanism yields atomically abrupt crystal interfaces and kinetically controllable thickness down to a single TMMC layer. Our approach stabilizes 2D crystals with commonly unattainable thermodynamic phases, such as β-Cu2S and γ-CuSe, and spectroscopic characterization reveals ultra-large phase transition depression and interesting electronic properties. The presented ability to produce large-scale 2D crystals with high environmental stability was applied to highly sensitive and fast optoelectronic sensors. Our approach extends the morphological, compositional, and thermodynamic complexity of 2D materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化學 (全部)