An ultra-low-LO (local oscillator)-power X-band down-conversion ring mixer in 0.18-μ.m CMOS process is presented. By using the weak-inversion biasing technique, the proposed X-band ring mixer exhibits low-dc-power consumption and low-LO-drive power while maintaining a reasonable conversion gain (CG). The measurement results show that the proposed mixer demonstrates a maximum CG of 1.75 dB with ultra-low-LO-power of -8 dBm at RF of 12 GHz and IF of 100 MHz. The dc power is only 2 mW. The 3-dB RF bandwidth is from 9 to 15 GHz and the output 1-dB compression point (OP1 dB) is -14 dBm.
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