Background: We evaluated the effectiveness of a transtheoretical model (TTM)-based passive smoking prevention programme developed to enhance passive smoking avoidance among pregnant women and women with young children in Taiwan. Methods: Subjects were pregnant women recruited from the obstetrics/gynaecology department and women with children younger than age 3 recruited from the paediatrics department of four hospitals in Taiwan. Participants were randomly assigned to a group receiving a TTM-based intervention programme or a comparison group receiving routine care. The intervention programme consisted of educational materials and phone counselling. Baseline assessment and post-test data were collected from both groups using a self-reported questionnaire developed based on stages of change related to readiness for passive smoking avoidance. Results: Determinants of change, post-test scores of knowledge, experiential and behavioural processes and self-efficacy were significantly different between the intervention group and comparison group among both pregnant women and mothers. Among pregnant women, the intervention group had significantly higher post-test scores than the comparison group. The distribution of percentages in three stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation/Preparation and Action/Maintenance) was significantly different between the two groups among both pregnant women and mothers. However, a higher percentage of mothers made progress in stages of change compared with pregnant women. Conclusion: A TTM-based intervention programme was potentially effective in passive smoking prevention by improving knowledge, experiential and behavioural processes and self-efficacy among pregnant women and women with young children. A higher percentage of mothers with young children had progressed in stages of change post-intervention compared with pregnant women.
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