Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia associated with progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. Extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) is a major constituent of senile plaques, one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ deposition causes neuronal death via a number of possible mechanisms such as increasing oxidative stress. Therefore therapeutic approaches to identify novel Aβ aggregate reducers could be effective for AD treatment. Using a Trx-His-Aβ biochemical assay, we screened 11 synthetic indolylquinoline compounds, and found NC009-1, -2, -6 and -7 displaying potential to reduce Aβ aggregation. Treating Tet-On Aβ-GFP 293 cells with these compounds reduced Aβ aggregation and reactive oxygen species. These compounds also promoted neurite outgrowth in Tet-On Aβ-GFP SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, treatment with above compounds improved neuronal cell viability, neurite outgrowth, and synaptophysin expression level in mouse hippocampal primary culture under oligomeric Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, the tested NC009-1 significantly ameliorated Aβ-induced inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices. Our results demonstrate how synthetic indolylquinoline compounds are likely to work as chemical chaperones in Aβ-aggregation reduction and neuroprotection, providing insight into the possible applications of indolylquinoline compounds in AD treatment.
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