The Optimal Sizing Design Approach of Hybrid Energy Sources for Various Electric Vehicles

Syuan Yi Chen, Chu Yang Chiu, Yi Hsuan Hung*, Kuo Kuang Jen, Gwo Huei You, Po Lin Shih


研究成果: 雜誌貢獻期刊論文同行評審

2 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


In this paper, we present a discussion about green energy sources that have been widely utilized in electric vehicles (EVs). To achieve different requirements of various EVs, the correct sizing of energy sources is crucial so that the cost and output performance will be optimized. In this research, three energy sources, supercapacitors (SCs), lithium titanate oxide (LTO) batteries, and Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NCM) (or Li3) batteries, were considered for hybridization. An effective global search algorithm (GSA) was designed for optimal sizing of hybrid electric energy systems (HEESs). The GSA procedures were: (1) vehicle specification and performance requirements of energy sources, (2) determination of cost function and constraints, (3) GSA optimization with for-loops, (4) optimal results. Five examples of EVs, the electric sedan, long-distance electric bus, short-distance electric bus, electric forklift, and electric sports car, were analyzed for optimal hybrid energy combination under different criteria and specifications. The GSA effectively optimized the designs of energy sizing. The performance indices and vehicle requirements studied were the specific price, specific energy at a constant volume, specific energy at a constant mass, and specific power at a constant mass for three energy sources, SCs, LTO batteries, and Li batteries. The vehicle requirements including the maximum output power, vehicle acceleration, climbability, and maximum speed have been formulated as the design constraints. A numerical analysis of five types of EVs was analyzed for optimal sizing of the HEES and the optimal position of the DC/DC converter with the lowest cost function. The integrated system and control designs of the HESS using the GSA, more applications for green energy sources, and different types of EVs will be studied in the future.

期刊Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
出版狀態已發佈 - 2022 3月 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 一般材料科學
  • 儀器
  • 一般工程
  • 製程化學與技術
  • 電腦科學應用
  • 流體流動和轉移過程


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