Based on kinesthetic learning style theory and interviews regarding teachers' experiences applying traditional astronomy teaching methods, a mobile digital armillary sphere (MDAS) using augmented reality (AR) was developed for use during astronomical observation instruction. The MDAS enables visual processes and limb movements similar to those that would occur in actual outdoor experiences to be employed in the classroom, thereby overcoming existing instructional limitations. A quasi-experimental design method was adopted, and 200 fifth-grade students were selected as participants. The use of the MDAS in astronomical observation courses affected students' learning effectiveness and interest. The experimental results indicated that using the MDAS system during outdoor observation activities effectively enhanced both the students' learning of astronomical observation content and their performance of astronomical observation skills. In addition, use of the MDAS effectively increased students' interest in astronomical observations and learning, which had a substantial effect on retention.
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