The genus Aspidistra has restricted distribution in Southeast Asia, Japan, and China, with more than 160 species. Hayata described three endemic species naturally occurring in Taiwan: Aspidistra attenuata Hayata, A. mushaensis Hayata, and A. daibuensis Hayata, but their descriptions in prologues are incomplete. Based on intensive field surveys, specimen observations, and literature consultations, we reexamine the morphology of these three species and further attempt to determine the diversity of this genus in Taiwan. Therefore, we confirm that there are four species in Taiwan, including one new species, A. longiconnectiva C.T. Lu, K.C. Chuang & J.C. Wang.
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