The presence of triclosan and triclocarban, two endocrine-disrupting chemicals and antimicrobial agents, and transformation products of triclocarban, 1,3-di(phenyl)urea, 1,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)urea and 1,3-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea, in tap water, treated household drinking water, bottled water, and river water samples were investigated using solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with-HPLC-MS/MS, a rapid, green, and sensitive method. Factors influencing the quantity of the analytes extracted onto the solid-phase micro-extraction fiber, such as addition of salt, sample pH, extraction time, desorption time, and sample volume, were optimized using solid-phase micro-extraction-HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the method gave satisfactory sensitivities and precisions for analyzing sub-part-per-trillion levels of triclosan, triclocarban, and transformation products of triclocarban in samples collected locally. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 97 to 107% for deionized water samples, and 99 to 110% for river water samples, and limits of detection were in the range of 0.32-3.44 and 0.38-4.67 ng/L for deionized water and river water samples, respectively. On average, the daily consumption of triclosan and triclocarban by an adult by consuming 2 liters of different types of drinking water were estimated to be in the range of 6.13-425 ng/day as a result of the concentrations of triclosan and triclocarban measured in this study.
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