Objective: In this study, we obtained relevant data from a nationwide cohort database to investigate the risk of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with a history of febrile seizures (FS). Methods: We identified 1081 children with FS as the case cohort, and the date of diagnosis was used as an index date. Four controls were matched randomly with each case based on age, sex, urbanisation level, parents' occupation, and index date. We applied Cox's proportional hazards regression to estimate the HR and CI of FS-associated ADHD. Results: After 11 years of follow-up, the incidence of ADHD for the FS and control cohorts is 7.83 and 4.72 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The FS cohort was 1.66 times more at risk of ADHD occurrence (95% CI 1.27 to 2.18) than the control cohort. The risk of developing ADHD increased in conjunction with the frequency of FS-related visits. Conclusions: FS may increase the risk of subsequent ADHD occurrence in children. Children who visited physicians for FS more than twice had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of ADHD.
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