The aim of this study was, first, to validate the instruments of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Games (TPACK-Games) and the Game-based-learning Teaching Belief Scale (GTBS). Second, a series of analyses were conducted to examine differences and relationships among the factors of the TPACK-Games and GTBS, in terms of different school levels. A total of 384 junior high school and elementary school teachers were recruited to complete the surveys. The study found that the TPACK-Games and GTBS surveys were valid and reliable instruments. Further, in comparison with teachers in junior high school, elementary school teachers tended to have higher self-efficacy in game pedagogical knowledge (GPK) and game pedagogical content knowledge (GPCK). They also demonstrated stronger beliefs, confidence and motivation to use games in their classes. Teachers’ GPK was the most influential factor in predicting their GPCK, and GPCK further positively predicted their beliefs, confidence and motivation in using games in class.
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