Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in pediatric patients. However, long-term renal effects after pneumococcal pneumonia infection in adult patients remains largely unknown. To evaluate this we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study consisting of 18,733 adult patients at the time of pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosis, using claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) with a comparison cohort of 73,409 age- and gender-matched patients without pneumococcal pneumonia. The overall incidence rate ratio of ESRD was 23% higher in those with pneumococcal pneumonia than in those without pneumococcal pneumonia (5.26 vs. 3.10 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.29). In addition, the risk of developing ESRD was associated with covariates including age, gender, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart failure. The ESRD cumulative incidence curve showed a considerably higher risk of ESRD in those with pneumococcal pneumonia than in those without pneumococcal pneumonia (significant by log-rank test). Thus, pneumococcal pneumonia may be associated with an increased risk of ESRD in adult patients. A long-term follow-up of renal function is recommended for adult hospitalized patients with pneumococcal pneumonia infection.
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