The rapid interest of low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) paved the way to develop its efficiency through different fabrication techniques. The inclusion of different monovalent organic or inorganic cation and halide anion in the A-site and X-site of the perovskite structure made the material to be stable at ambient conditions. In this study, a triple cation was carefully evaluated by stressing the importance of minimal processing steps, such as spin-coating, thermal annealing, and the addition of antisolvent. For enhancing the stability of perovskite film, different concentration of cesium cation was incorporated into the perovskite film. 10% cesium cation incorporated perovskite film showed a high reflectance with flat and full surface coverage. Considering the importance of other parameters and conditions, its stability was enhanced that made the perovskite film retain its black perovskite phase for four months even after exposure to ambient air. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.90% was measured under reverse scanning for 10% cesium incorporated perovskite solar cells. This structural, thermal and environmental stability, and reproducible characteristic behavior of the 10% cesium incorporated perovskite samples were achieved because of the modified fabrication techniques which are useful for future and large-scale applications.
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