The host–parasitoid relationship and species identity of aquatic parasitoids of two damselflies Coeliccia cyanomelas (Platycnemididae) and Psolodesmus mandarinus dorothea (Calopterygidae) from Fushan and Lienhuachih in Taiwan were studied using morphological characters and DNA barcoding sequences. The parasitoids reared from the damselflies’ eggs, and the field-collected parasitoids, were morphologically identified as Hydrophylita emporos (Trichogrammatidae), a recently described parasitoid of the damselfly P. m. mandarinus from Northern Taiwan. The CO1 (cytochrome c oxidase I) gene tree supported the identification as H. emporos, as well as all parasitoid samples from C. cyanomelas, P. m. dorothea and P. m. mandarinus. The sampled H. emporos populations did not differ genetically despite their different host associations. However, some genetic differences were found between H. emporos populations from Northern and Central Taiwan, indicating that the dispersal of H. emporos may be limited by geographical distances. Our results suggest that H. emporos can parasitise not only closely related sister subspecies, P. m. mandarinus and P. m. dorothea, but also phylogenetically distant species of another damselfly family, C. cyanomelas. This is the first record of multiple damselfly hosts for the aquatic parasitoid genus Hydrophylita. This finding implies that the host range of H. emporos and congeneric species may be broader than previously thought.
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