The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between muscular fitness and motor competence and processing speed in preschool children. Eighty-four preschool-aged children were recruited and underwent assessments for muscular fitness (muscular endurance and power), motor competence, and then participated in an auditory oddball task. The findings showed that muscular fitness and motor competence were associated with shorter reaction times after controlling for confounding factors. These findings provide tentative support for a positive association between muscular fitness and motor competence and processing speed in preschool children. abbreviations: Reaction time (RT); Institutional Review Board (IRB); Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT); Body mass index (BMI); Preschool Children Fitness Programme (PCFP); Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC); Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement test (TCAM); Inter-stimulus interval (ISI); Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1); Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
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