Mobile devices have been increasingly utilized in informal learning because of their high degree of portability; mobile guide systems (or electronic guidebooks) have also been adopted in museum learning, including those that combine learning strategies and the general audio-visual guide systems. To gain a deeper understanding of the features and limitations of these guide systems in a museum-learning context and also to provide new designs that better guide learners in interacting with peers and exhibitions, in-depth exploration of learners' actual visits and analyses of their behavioural patterns is crucial. This study was based on empirical observation and analysis of the learning behaviours (recorded on video) of 65 elementary-school students who were placed into three groups: mobile guide with problem-solving strategy, audio-visual mobile guide and paper-based learning-sheet guide. By coding and analysing the video and conducting sequential analysis and frequency analysis of learning-related discussion content, behavioural interaction patterns were determined by which the features and limitations of the different types of guides were compared. Among the findings, it was discovered that the students in the problem-solving mobile guide group showed a higher level of two-way interactions with their peers and the exhibits, as well as more learning-related discussions. Relevant suggestions for teachers, researchers and guide-systems developers are also given.
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