This paper draws on data from the international TEDS-M study, organized by the IEA, and utilizes a conceptual framework describing the Taiwanese perspective of mathematics and mathematics teaching competences (MTCs) with regard to investigating the uniqueness and patterns of Taiwanese future primary teacher performance in the international context. The framework includes contentoriented and thought-oriented categories of mathematics competence. The latter category contains subcategories adopted and revised from (3rd Mediterranean conference on mathematical education. Hellenic Mathematical Society, Athens, 2003) the competence approach by Niss. Hsieh’s (Research on the development of the professional ability for teaching mathematics in the secondary school level (3/3). Taiwan: National Science Council, 2009) model is also adopted and revised to serve as an analytical framework, including four categories relating to MTCs, representations, language, and misconceptions or error procedures. This paper shows that in thought-oriented mathematics competences Taiwan and Singapore share a unique pattern of higher percent correct in competences related to formalization, abstraction, and operations in mathematics than in those related to the way of thinking, modelling and reasoning in and with mathematics. The paper also addresses weak teaching competences claimed in domestic studies, which conflict with the TEDS-M results. Namely, in contrary to the international trend, Taiwanese future primary teachers are weak at judging mathematics competences required by students to learn mathematical concepts or solve problems, and superior at diagnosing and dealing with student misconceptions and error procedures.
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