Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential endogenous signaling molecule regulating multifaceted physiological functions in the (cardio)vascular, neuronal, and immune systems. Due to the short half-life and location-/concentration-dependent physiological function of NO, translational application of NO as a novel therapeutic approach, however, awaits a strategy for spatiotemporal control on the delivery of NO. Inspired by the magnetic hyperthermia and magneto-triggered drug release featured by Fe3O4 conjugates, in this study, we aim to develop a magnetic responsive NO-release material (MagNORM) featuring dual NO-release phases, namely, burst and steady release, for the selective activation of NO-related physiology and treatment of bacteria-infected cutaneous wound. After conjugation of NO-delivery [Fe(μ-S-thioglycerol)(NO)2]2 with a metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived porous Fe3O4@C, encapsulation of obtained conjugates within the thermo-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere completes the assembly of MagNORM. Through continuous/pulsatile/no application of the alternating magnetic field (AMF) to MagNORM, moreover, burst/intermittent/slow release of NO from MagNORM demonstrates the AMF as an ON/OFF switch for temporal control on the delivery of NO. Under continuous application of the AMF, in particular, burst release of NO from MagNORM triggers an effective anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli). In addition to the magneto-triggered bactericidal effect of MagNORM against E. coli-infected cutaneous wound in mice, of importance, steady release of NO from MagNORM without the AMF promotes the subsequent collagen formation and wound healing in mice.
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