Complex rocks, consisting of different lithologic breccias and sediments in the Tungho area of the southern Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan, were formed by magmas and magma-sediment mingling. Based on field occurrences, petrography, and mineral and rock compositions, three components including mafic magma, felsic magma, and sediments can be identified. The black breccias and white breccias were consolidated from mafic and felsic magma, respectively. Isotopic composition shows these two magmas may be from the same source. Compared to the white breccias, the black breccias show clast-supported structures, higher An values in plagioclase, higher contents of MgO, CaO, and Fe2O3 and lower SiO2, greater enrichment in the light rare earth elements (LREE), and depletion in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE). The white breccias show matrix-supported blocks and mingling with tuffaceous sediments to form peperite. Physical and chemical evidence shows that the characteristics of these two components (mafic and felsic magmas) are still apparent in the mingled zone. According to their petrography, mafic and felsic magmas did not have much time for mingling. White intrusive structures and black flow structures show that mingling occurred before they solidified. Finally, the occurrence of mingling between magmas and sediments suggests that the mingling has taken place at the surface and not in the magma chamber.
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