Background: Health professionals and healthcare volunteers play a critical role in promoting uptake of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), which is an effective screening method for colorectal cancer. However, previous studies paid less attention to investigating both groups regarding their intention to undergo the test. This study used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explore the likelihood of an FOBT uptake among health professionals and healthcare volunteers aged 50 years or older. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at public health centers in a county in northern Taiwan. Health professionals and healthcare volunteers were invited to complete the questionnaires. Overall, 391 valid questionnaires were obtained (response rate = 93.10%). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations among the variables based on the HBM. Results: The HBM explained 45, 44, and 50% of the variance in the likelihood of undergoing an FOBT in all participants, health professionals, and healthcare volunteers, respectively. The explained variance in healthcare volunteers outweighed that of professionals by 6%. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy significantly affected the likelihood of undergoing an FOBT. Self-efficacy significantly mediated the effects of perceived severity, benefits, and barriers on the likelihood of an FOBT uptake. A borderline significant difference in structural coefficients was found across groups. Conclusions: The HBM model was used to examine the likelihood of an FOBT uptake among health professionals and healthcare volunteers, and the results showed that self-efficacy was the optimal predictor of the likelihood of an FOBT uptake, followed by perceived benefits. Future multifactorial interventions to promote FOBT uptake among health professionals and healthcare volunteers aged 50-75 years could include these significant factors.
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