This study employed a carbon microelectromechanical system (C-MEMS) in fabricating a 3D micro-electrode array of conductive carbon cylinders directly on the surface of a graphite substrate. The capacitance of the array was further enhanced by decorating it with a composite material comprising highly-porous carbon nanofibers (CF) and electroactive RuO2 nanoparticles to function as an active electrode. In galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, the specific capacitance of an electrode decorated with RuO2 30 wt%/CF was 219.2 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, which is 2.27 times higher than that of the pristine CF electrode. When the current density was increased from 0.5 A g−1 to 3 A g−1, the capacitance retention of the RuO2 30 wt%/CF electrode was 54.8%. A symmetric supercapacitor based on the RuO2 30 wt%/CF composite electrode exhibited an impressive energy density of 74.2 Wh kg−1 with power density of 4333 W kg−1. It also demonstrated good capacitance retention of 80.2% following 3000 consecutive charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 2 A g−1.
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