Purpose Massive open online courses (MOOCs) offer open courses to the public. The professional knowledge of remediation received attention when the 18-hour basic course was made a requirement for teacher preparation by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. There is a shortage of professional development resources for remedial teachers. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the application of MOOCs to the required Remediation Teacher Preparation program. Design/methodology/approach "Every Student Can Succeed: Effective Remediation" was designed as an xMOOC and was opened to the public to meet the demand for professional development. Six types of learning activities were designed: video, homework, issue-discussion, project, PowerPoint slide, and reference. There were 421 students registered for the online course. Students' learning behavior data and a postcourse online survey were collected from 65 participants. The data were analyzed to answer the research questions. Findings/results 1. Approximately 10% of enrolled students completed the course requirements. Three types of participants were found on the basis of participation behavior: the no-show, drop-out, and lurker. They showed significantly different behavior online. Participation decreased as the units advanced and the most significant decrease occurred after the second unit. The "homework" was the learning activity that received the most visits, followed by "issue-discussion". 2. The survey found that the highest proportion of participants were teachers or teacher trainees. Some of the participants did not work in schools or study education but enrolled for personal interests. Most participants reported positive attitudes toward MOOCs and considered MOOCs as a potential way to provide professional development for remediation. 3. The varied backgrounds of the participants, the positive feedback from them, and the number of participants, all supported the feasibility of the MOOC for remediation teacher training. Originality/value The application of MOOCs to remediation teacher training is in the trial stages in Taiwan. The results and suggestions of this study provide information for further consideration for online teacher development programs. Suggestions/implications The results of this study reflect the actual outcome of the application of MOOCs in remedial instruction and teacher training in Taiwan. The study also supports the feasibility of using MOOCs to supply remedial teacher professional development which is difficult to meet the needs. The study also unveils different modes of learning and participants' responses to online learning activities. The aforementioned results provide a reference for future teacher development programs based on MOOCs.
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