Purpose: Growing evidence reveals a link between Kawasaki disease (KD) and allergic diseases. This population-based case-control study is to investigate the onset of allergic diseases in children and the associated risks of KD. Methods: From 1996 to 2008, 2748 children with KD and 10,656 randomly selected controls were enrolled. Odds ratios of KD were calculated for the association with pre-existing allergic diseases. Results: The children with a single allergic disease had an increased risk of KD, with adjusted odds ratios of having KD of 1.82 for urticaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-2.14), 1.44 for allergic rhinitis (95% CI, 1.23-1.70), and 1.22 for atopic dermatitis (95% CI, 1.06-1.39). The adjusted odds ratios increased with the number of concurrent allergic diseases, from 1.61 (95% CI, 1.43-1.82) for those with only one allergic disease to 1.71 (95% CI, 1.48-1.98) for those with at least two allergic diseases. The children who made two or more medical visits for associated allergic diseases per year had an increased risk of KD. Conclusions: Children with onset of allergic diseases were at increased risk for KD, and the increased risk was associated with the cumulative effect of concurrent allergic diseases and frequency of seeking medical care.
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