Although the concentrations of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and tau protein are very low in human plasma, ultrasensitive assays such as immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) are able to precisely quantify them. Review articles have described the detailed working mechanism of IMR and revealed the feasibility of detecting early-stage AD by assaying these plasma biomarkers with IMR. In this review, we aimed to compare the significance of these plasma biomarkers in predicting cognitive decline in patients with Down syndrome, stroke, or amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on findings in the literature. We found that plasma Aβ1–42 might play the predominant role in predicting cognitive decline in these patients.
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