Five types of insect-induced galls derived from three host plant leaves were analyzed for their carotenoid (Car), chlorophyll (Chl), and Chl biosynthesis porphyrins such as protoporphyrinogen IX (PPIX), magnesium protoporphyrin (MGPP) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), and Chl degradation intermediates including chlorophyllide (Chlide), pheophytin (Phe), pheophorbide (Pho), and phytylated and dephytylated pigments, and compared to ungalled portions of the same leaf. Galls contain significantly lower levels of Chl-related compounds (CRCs) than ungalled portions of host leaves. The mole percent of porphyrin and the ratios of Chlide/Phe and phytylated/dephytylated pigments are both very different between galls and host leaves. We, therefore, conclude that leaf-derived gall is a kind of non-leaf green tissue, that herbivorous insects alter gall Chl biosynthesis and degradation pathways, that Mg-chelatase, Mg-dechelatase, and chlorophyllase may be the major non-lethal enzymes in galls, and that while ungalled host leaves take Chl. →. Phe. →. Pho and Chl. →. Chlide. →. Pho as the major and minor degradation routes, respectively, all galls are in contrast with the host leaves.
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