Neurons that have been derived from various types of stem cells have recently undergone significant study due to their potential for use in various aspects of biomedicine. In particular, glutamatergic neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) potentially have many applications in both basic research and regenerative medicine. This review summarized the literatures published thus far and focused on two areas related to these applications. Firstly, these neurons can be used to investigate neuronal signal transduction during differentiation and this means that the genes/proteins/markers involved in this process can be identified. In this way, the dynamic spatial and temporal changes associated with neuronal morphology can be investigated relatively easily. Such an in vitro system can also be used to study how neurons during neurogenesis integrate into normal tissue. At the same time, the integration, regulation and functions of extracellular matrix secretion, various molecular interactions, various ion channels, the neuronal microenvironment, etc., can be easily traced. Secondly, the disease-related aspects of ESC-derived glutamatergic neurons can also be studied and then applied therapeutically. In the future, greater efforts are needed to explore how ESC-differentiated glutamatergic neurons can be used as a neuronal model for the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mechanistically, to identify possible therapeutic strategies for treating AD, including tissue replacement, and to screen for drugs that can be used to treat AD patients. With all of the modern technology that is available, translational medicine should begin to benefit patients soon.
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