Since the global COVID-19 pandemic began, online learning has gained increasing im-portance as learners are socially isolated by physical and psychological threats, and have to face the epidemic and take preventive measures to ensure non-stop learning. Based on socially situated cognition theory, this study focused on exploring the relevance of online learning ineffectiveness (OLI) predicted by self-regulated learning (SRL) in different phases of learning (preparation, per-formance, and self-reflection) and its interaction with mind-unwandered during the COVID-19 pandemic. The subjects of the study were senior general high and technical high school students. After completing the online questionnaire, the PLS-SEM method of the structural equation model was used to analyze the data. Results demonstrated that self-regulation in two phases of preparation (i.e., cognitive strategy and emotional adjustment) and performance (i.e., mission strategy and environmental adjustment) in SRL are positively related to mind-unwandered in online learning. Moreover, mind-unwandered in online learning was positively related to the self-reflection phase (i.e., time management and help-seeking) of SRL. Additionally, self-reflection of SRL was negatively related to online learning ineffectiveness. PLS assessments found that the preparation and performance sub-constructs of SRL were negatively related to online learning ineffectiveness mediated by mind-unwandered and self-reflection of SRL. The results suggest that teachers can enhance their students’ self-regulation in online learning, and assist them in being more mind-unwandered in online learning.
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