Objective: Many women quit smoking during pregnancy resume in postpartum period and difficult to prevent. No studies had focused on their psychosocial response in Taiwan. We analyzed data from a trial of Taiwan Smoker's Helpline (TSH) to determine factors associated with smoking relapse after delivery. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort was conducted at Taipei City Hospital during Sep. 2014 and Nov. 2015 period. We collected data by self-developed questionnaire combining theory of planned behavior (TPB), Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) from 68 women immediately after delivery, 2 months later and followed up until 6 months. Multivariable logistic models for relapse of smoking at the end of 3rd month and 6th month were created. Results: At 6th month, 42.6% participants relapsed with odds lower among first parity (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = <0.01–0.54, p = 0.015), having quitting experience in past (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01–0.84, p = 0.019) and higher perceived behavior control (PBC) (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98–1.00, p = 0.035), but greater for those with longer smoking duration in past (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.04–1.58, p = 0.018). Conclusion: Protective and precipitating factors to post-partum's smoking relapse were identified in our study.
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