This study investigated the relationship between the use of a three-dimensional Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Field Trip (3DVLE (ft)) system and the achievement levels of senior high school earth science students. The 3DVLE (ft) system was presented in two separate formats: Teacher Demonstrated Based and Student Co-navigated Based. The results from the pre- and post-intervention assessments, along with the demographic and affective data, were used to fit a series of multiple regression models to explore the relationship between achievement, attitude, and learning environment preference. Pre-intervention test score, virtual learning environment preference and use, the degree to which students found the system helpful, and gender were all significantly related to post-intervention test score variability, as was the interaction between gender and prior use of virtual environments.
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