The world today is facing the impact of the environmental changes, resulting in changes to the ecological environments and threats to the human living space. Thus, how the communities facing with those changes, revive the environment, and maintain the sustainable development of society and economy is an important direction for governmental policy around the world. With rich fishing resources, Penghu Islands has a long history of fisheries. However, faced with the impact of environmental changes and under the ecologically unequal exchange patterns of fishery and tourism, Penghu Islands has to rely on the main island of Taiwan for resources. This study aims to investigate the unequal exchange behavior of early fishery and recent tourism development of Penghu Islands. By reviewing the implementation of the policy of developing a low-carbon island, this study summarizes the resilient community construction pattern, which is very important to sustainable development, and expects that Penghu Islands can be constructed into an eco-tourism, environmental education, scientific research and living experience area, as well as an example of sustainable island.
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