Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding

Michelene T.H. Chi*, Nicholas De Leeuw, Mei Hung Chiu, Christian Lavancher

*此作品的通信作者

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻期刊論文同行評審

1465 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)

摘要

Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generating explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solving skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that self-explanation can also be facilitative when it is explicitly promoted, in the context of learning declarative knowledge from an expository text. Without any extensive training, 14 eighth-grade students were merely asked to self-explain after reading each line of a passage on the human circulatory system. Ten students in the control group read the same text twice, but were not prompted to self-explain. All of the students were tested for their circulatory system knowledge before and after reading the text. The prompted group had a greater gain from the pretest to the posttest. Moreover, prompted students who generated a large number of self-explanations (the high explainers) learned with greater understanding than low explainers. Understanding was assessed by answering very complex questions and inducing the function of a component when it was only implicitly stated. Understanding was further captured by a mental model analysis of the self-explanation protocols. High explainers all achieved the correct mental model of the circulatory system, whereas many of the unprompted students as well as the low explainers did not. Three processing characteristics of self-explaining are considered as reasons for the gains in deeper understanding.

原文英語
頁(從 - 到)439-477
頁數39
期刊Cognitive Science
18
發行號3
DOIs
出版狀態已發佈 - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 實驗與認知心理學
  • 認知神經科學
  • 人工智慧

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