Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the enhancing effect of vitamin-like alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on phagocytosis of oligomeric beta-amyloid (oAβ)1–42 in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Methods: An in vitro model was established to investigate phagocytosis of oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the morphology of prepared oAβ1–42 was spherical particles. BV-2 cells treated with ALA were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oAβ1–42 (FAM-oAβ1–42) for 24 h, followed by flow cytometer analysis, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis to assess the in vitro phagocytosis ability of oAβ1–42. Results: Alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the CD36 receptor in BV-2 cells. ICC analysis showed that ALA significantly elevated CD36 protein expression in BV-2 cells both with and without oAβ1–42 treatment. Results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that the CD36 receptor inhibitor significantly attenuated ALA-promoted phagocytosis of FAM-oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Moreover, ICC analysis revealed that ALA caused the translocation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), which is known to regulate the expression of CD36 mRNA in BV-2 cells. ALA also elevated both the mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 in BV-2 cells. Conclusion: We postulated that ALA enhances oAβ1–42 phagocytosis by upregulating the COX-2/15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2/PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway in BV-2 cells. Finally, future studies should be conducted with an in vivo study to confirm the findings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas