Background: Neighborhood environmental attributes can promote walking behavior among older adults. Nevertheless, these walkability attributes may affect walking behavior differently depending on the time of the day. This study examined the association between neighborhood environmental attributes and average step counts at different times of the day. Methods: We included 122 older adults (aged ≥ 60 years, mean age: 70.0 years) from Taiwan in this study. Neighborhood environmental attributes were estimated using a geographic information system. An accelerometer was used to calculate their daily step counts during three time periods: morning (6:00 to 12:00), afternoon (12:01 to 18:00), and night (18:01 to 24:00). In this cross-sectional study, we performed multiple linear regression after adjustment for potential covariates to examine the correlation of five walkability attributes, namely residential density, street connectivity, sidewalk availability, destination accessibility, and public transportation accessibility, with total step counts during different time periods. Results: Sidewalk availability, destination accessibility, and public transportation accessibility demonstrated a positive association with older adults' step counts during morning. No association was found between any neighborhood environment attribute and older adults’ total step count during afternoon and night. Conclusions: Neighborhoods with high sidewalk availability, access to destinations, and public transportation accessibility may encourage older adults' walking behavior during morning. Future research applying longitudinal methods is required to understand how the time of the day affects environment's role in supporting walking behavior.
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