The purposes of this study were to, first, design a holographic projection system to assist students in learning the concept of lunar phases. This study also aimed to evaluate university students' learning achievements and self-efficacy after using this holographic projection system. A holographic projection system with three modes was developed. The system allows users to switch the modes and operate the system through the keyboard. 30 Taiwanese university students participated in a holographic projection learning activity. The participants' knowledge acquisition and self-efficacy regarding lunar phases were evaluated through a pre-test and a post-test comparison. The results indicated that the participants showed significantly better learning achievements and higher self-efficacy after using the system. The findings of this study were expected to provide significant insights into how to adequately accommodate this novel technology in education.