The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an important role in the climate as it balances heat energy and water mass between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans through the Drake Passage. However, because the historical measurements and observations are extremely limited, the decadal and long-term variations of the ACC around the western South Atlantic Ocean are rarely studied. By analyzing reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in a 147-year period (1870-2016), previous studies have shown that SST anomalies (SSTAs) around the Antarctic Peninsula and South America had the same phase change as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study further showed that changes in SSTAs in the regions mentioned above were enlarged when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the ENSO were in the same warm or cold phase, implying that changes in the SST of higher latitude oceans could be enhanced when the influence of the ENSO is considered along with the PDO.
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