Different approaches to stimulating perceptions in learning can be easily designed with technology-enhanced learning systems. This study aimed to explore how different approaches can influence learners' perceptions that may negatively or positively affect their learning performance of writing Chinese characters using the correct Chinese order of strokes (COS). We therefore designed an e-learning system which was subdivided into two modes: stroke-appearing (i.e., using red to mark incorrect strokes) and stroke-disappearing (i.e., using blanks to mark incorrect strokes) to indicate strokes written in the incorrect order. We then investigated the modes that would facilitate a higher level of attention and better learning outcomes. A total of 10 third-grade elementary school students participated in the experiment, divided into two test groups. Their EEG data were collected, and time series analysis and t-tests were utilized to analyze the differences. The results indicated that: (1) there was a significant difference in the attention levels of the students practicing with the stroke-appearing and stroke-disappearing modes when learning COS, and (2) there was a significant difference in the learning outcomes of the students practicing with the stroke-appearing and stroke-disappearing modes when learning COS. These findings support the specific role of stroke order knowledge in learning Chinese characters and the need for the design of an effective method for teaching children to learn Chinese characters.
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