Large cohort studies on whether any association existed between urological interventions for urolithiasis and the development of CKD are lacking. From claims data of the National Health Insurance (NHI) program of Taiwan, we identified 54,433 patients newly diagnosed with urolithiasis during 1998–2010. For each case, four individuals without urolithiasis were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up until the end of 2010. Incident CKD events were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code in the NHI registration database. The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.85-fold greater in the urolithiasis group than in the comparison group (33.9 vs 18.3 per 10,000 person-years; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.81–1.90). Compared with the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of nonurolithiasis patients, those of patients with urolithiasis increased with the number of medical visits (from 0.91 [95 % CI 0.83–1.00] to 10.6 [95 % CI 9.48–11.8]) and urological interventions (from 1.22 [95 % CI 1.10–1.35] to 86.4 [95 % CI 67.6–110.6]). The aHR was similar in different urological intervention methods, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrostolithotomy, and open stone surgery. The urological intervention for urolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of CKD. We should be aware of the risk for CKD, especially in patients who have received multiple urological interventions and those elderly.
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