This paper presents the modelling technique and dynamic simulation results of fuel cell and engine Hybrid Electric Scooters (HES) using the bond graph approach. The first example is on a fuel cell-battery hybrid scooter, in which the zero pollution fuel cell is the major powerplant, also acts as the battery charger. The second case study is on a typical engine-motor-regenerator-battery HES. It mainly consists of a brush-less direct current motor/regenerator and a 4-stroke direct injection spark ignition engine. They are interconnected in parallel by a continuously variable transmission. Detailed differential equation sets as well as simulation results are presented. A fuzzy auto-pilot control rule was employed to simulate the vehicle performance under typical driving pattern conditions.
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