Objective: The current study attempted to explore the possible temporal direction of the relationship between sleep problems and non-physical bullying perpetration as well as non-physical bullying victimization among adolescents. Design: The study used a longitudinal panel survey design with a 6-month interval. Setting: A cluster random sampling method was conducted to recruit students from junior high schools in Northern Taiwan. Participants: Eight hundred twenty-two students (46.6% were boys) completed a survey at 2 waves. Measurement: Adolescents reported their sleep problems, non-physical bullying perpetration, and non-physical bullying victimization in both waves. Results: The results from cross-lagged panel models revealed that sleep problems at time 1 significantly predicted non-physical bullying victimization at time 2, but not in the opposite direction. In addition, non-physical bullying perpetration at time 1 significantly predicted sleep problems at time 2, but not in the opposite direction. No significant differences emerged between male and female adolescents in the cross-lagged model of sleep problems with non-physical bullying perpetration and non-physical bullying victimization. Conclusion: This study advances the literature by revealing that sleep problems may be a consequence, not a precursor, of adolescent non-physical bullying perpetration and a precursor, not a consequence, of non-physical bullying victimization. Intervention programs aimed at preventing adolescents from being non-physically bullied may consider improving their sleep quality. Reducing adolescents' non-physical bullying perpetration may also improve sleep quality along the way.
ASJC Scopus subject areas