The current study is aimed at analyzing how selected personal and contextual factors influence academic performance through their impact on imagination, and comparing differences between the imagination-mediated model of science majors and that of engineering majors. The participants were a sample of 876 undergrads which were divided into science and engineering groups. An analysis of structural equation modeling was used to test all the hypotheses proposed. The results showed that the initiating imagination of the science group had a negative and direct effect on their academic performance, whereas the conceiving imagination of the science group had a positive and direct effect. The transforming imagination indirectly influenced academic performance. Through the mediator effect of imagination, self-efficacy, generative cognition and conscientiousness had strong effects on the academic performance of both science and engineering majors. The results also indicated that the imagination-mediated models of both science and engineering groups were similar, but each variable had different influences. The major differences between these two models were the effects resulting from initiating imagination, conceiving imagination, self-efficacy, and conscientiousness on students' academic performance. The results will be appreciated and the instructional strategies will be developed under the premise that imagination and creativity are valuable to science and engineering education.
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