The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' beliefs about technology-based assessments (TBAs) and investigate the possible interplay between their beliefs and their usage of TBAs in classrooms. Forty technology-experienced science teachers participated in the study. Their beliefs about and use of TBAs were examined using semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed based on a coding scheme adapted from the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) model (Taylor & Todd, 1995). The analysis showed that ten components were substantial in the behavioral, control, and normative beliefs. While 85% teachers (34 out of 40) perceived TBAs as useful tools and identified a variety of usefulness, nearly 40% of the participants indicated the difficulties in using TBAs and their beliefs of ease of use were mainly negative. Also, teachers' control beliefs about TBA focused on the social and external components such as time, supporting personnel, and infrastructure rather than the personal factors. In their normative beliefs, teachers tended to view school policies and parents' opinions as constraints, whereas they also realized the benefits of using TBAs for learning. Furthermore, three groups of teachers were identified and characterized based on their usage of TBAs. Although some frequent users did not teach in resource-rich schools and faced constraints similar to those encountered by the occasional users, they seemed to actively look for more supports and solutions to overcome the lack of resources and the disapproval from the school administration. The findings extend the DTPB model of technology users by adding important beliefs about teaching and learning.
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