Recently, the use of natural food supplements to reduce the side effects of chemical compounds used for the treatment of various diseases has become popular. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has some protective effects in neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, its toxic effects on various systems and some relevant interactions with other drugs limit its broader use in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions of LiCl combined with Momordica charantia (MC) in the treatment of AD. The in vitro results show that the order of the neuroprotective effect is MC5, MC3, MC2, and MC5523 under hyperglycemia or tau hyperphosphorylation. Therefore, MC5523 (80 mg/kg; oral gavage) and/or LiCl (141.3 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) were applied to ovariectomized (OVX) 3×Tg-AD female and C57BL/6J (B6) male mice that received intracerebroventricular injections of streptozotocin (icv-STZ, 3 mg/kg) for 28 days. We found that the combined treatment not only increased the survival rate by reducing hepatotoxicity but also increased neuroprotection associated with anti-gliosis in the icv-STZ OVX 3×Tg-AD mice. Furthermore, the cotreatment with MC5523 and LiCl prevented memory deficits associated with reduced neuronal loss, gliosis, oligomeric Aβ level, and tau hyperphosphorylation and increased the expression levels of synaptic-related protein and pS9-GSK3β (inactive form) in the icv-STZ B6 mice. Therefore, MC5523 combined with LiCl could be a potential strategy for the treatment of AD.
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