Aims: The study aims were to investigate adherence to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to identify associated clinical factors in patients who inject drugs diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Methods: Data were from the National Health Surveillance System on HIV and the National Drug Treatment System on MMT. HIV-positive people who inject drugs (HIVPWID) were defined as the study population. Information obtained included age, sex, education, marital status, employment, methadone dose, and date of diagnosis of HIV infection. Adherence was defined as taking methadone for the past 90, 180 and 365 days, then categorized as high (> 90%), moderate (51 to 90%), or low (<=50%) adherent respectively. Results: Of 1641 HIVPWID registered in the datasets from 2007 to 2012, 961 (58.56%) had received MMT. For HIVPWID evaluated at 90 days (n = 951), 271 (28.5%), 382 (40.2%), and 298 (31.3%) were classified as high, moderate, and low adherent respectively. For HIVPWID evaluated at 180 days (n = 936), 190 (20.3%), 349 (37.3%), and 397 (42.4%) were classified as high, moderate, and low adherent respectively. For HIVPWID evaluated at 365 days (n = 919), 133 (14.5%), 271 (29.5%), and 515 (56.0%) were classified as high, moderate, and low adherent respectively. After controlling for sociodemographics, results showed that methadone dose, location of MMT clinic, and date of HIV diagnosis were significantly associated with MMT adherence. Conclusions: Study findings underscore the importance to MMT adherence of methadone dosage, early diagnosis of patient's HIV infection, and area of patient residence.
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