Electrification of transportation has spurred the development of fast-charge energy storage devices. High-power lithium-ion batteries require electrode materials that can store lithium quickly and reversibly. Herein, the design and construction of a Nb2O5−δ/graphite composite electrode that demonstrates remarkable rate capability and durability are reported. The presence of graphite enables the formation of a dominant Nb12O29 phase and a minor T-Nb2O5 phase. The high rate capability is attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and lower energy barriers for fast lithium diffusion in both Nb12O29 and T-Nb2O5, as unraveled by density functional theory calculations. The excellent durability or long cycling life is originated from the coherent redox behavior of Nb ions and high reversibility of lithium intercalation/deintercalation, as revealed by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis. When tested in a half-cell at high cycling rates, the composite electrode delivers a specific capability of 120 mAh g–1 at 80 C and retains over 150 mAh g–1 after 2000 cycles at 30 C, implying that it is a highly promising anode material for fast-charging lithium-ion batteries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化學 (全部)