CMOS integrated circuits are vulnerable to electrostatic discharge (ESD); therefore, ESD protection circuits are needed. On-chip ESD protection is important for both component-level and system-level ESD protection. In this work, on-chip ESD protection circuits for multi-Gbps high-speed applications are studied. π-shaped ESD protection circuit structures realized by staked diodes with an embedded silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) and resistor-triggered SCR are proposed. These test circuits are fabricated in CMOS technology, and the proposed designs have been proven to have better ESD robustness and performance in high-speed applications.
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