XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data

G. Hasinger, B. Altieri, M. Arnaud, X. Barcons, J. Bergeron, H. Brunner, M. Dadina, K. Dennerl, P. Ferrando, A. Finoguenov, R. E. Griffiths, Y. Hashimoto, F. A. Jansen, D. H. Lumb, K. O. Mason, S. Mateos, R. G. McMahon, T. Miyaji, F. Paerels, M. J. PageA. F. Ptak, T. P. Sasseen, N. Scharte, G. P. Szokoly, J. Trümper, M. Turner, R. S. Warwick, M. G. Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

285 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on the first deep X-ray survey with the XMM-Newton observatory during the performance verification phase. The field of the Lockman Hole, one of the best studied sky areas over a very wide range of wavelengths, has been observed. A total of ∼100 ksec good exposure time has been accumulated. Combining the images of the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) detectors we reach a flux limit of 0.31, 1.4 and 2.4 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1, respectively in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 5-10 keV band. Within an off-axis angle of 10 arcmin we detect 148, 112 and 61 sources, respectively. The log(N)-log(S) relation in the three bands is compared with previous results. In particular in the 5-10 keV band these observations present the deepest X-ray survey ever, about a factor 20 more sensitive than the previous BeppoSAX observations. Using X-ray spectral diagnostics and the set of previously known, spectroscopically identified ROSAT sources in the field, the new sources can be classified. XMM-Newton detects a significant number (∼40%) of X-ray sources with hard, probably intrinsically absorbed X-ray spectra, confirming a prediction of the population synthesis models for the X-ray background.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L45-L50
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume365
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jan 1

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XMM-Newton telescope
newton
x rays
erg
sky
observatories
observatory
cameras
wavelength
detectors
photons
synthesis
prediction
predictions
wavelengths

Keywords

  • Cosmology: diffuse radiation
  • Galaxies: active
  • Galaxies: quasars: general
  • Surveys
  • X-ray: galaxies
  • X-rays: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Hasinger, G., Altieri, B., Arnaud, M., Barcons, X., Bergeron, J., Brunner, H., ... Watson, M. G. (2001). XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 365(1), L45-L50. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20000046

XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data. / Hasinger, G.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Barcons, X.; Bergeron, J.; Brunner, H.; Dadina, M.; Dennerl, K.; Ferrando, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hashimoto, Y.; Jansen, F. A.; Lumb, D. H.; Mason, K. O.; Mateos, S.; McMahon, R. G.; Miyaji, T.; Paerels, F.; Page, M. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Sasseen, T. P.; Scharte, N.; Szokoly, G. P.; Trümper, J.; Turner, M.; Warwick, R. S.; Watson, M. G.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 365, No. 1, 01.01.2001, p. L45-L50.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Hasinger, G, Altieri, B, Arnaud, M, Barcons, X, Bergeron, J, Brunner, H, Dadina, M, Dennerl, K, Ferrando, P, Finoguenov, A, Griffiths, RE, Hashimoto, Y, Jansen, FA, Lumb, DH, Mason, KO, Mateos, S, McMahon, RG, Miyaji, T, Paerels, F, Page, MJ, Ptak, AF, Sasseen, TP, Scharte, N, Szokoly, GP, Trümper, J, Turner, M, Warwick, RS & Watson, MG 2001, 'XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 365, no. 1, pp. L45-L50. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20000046
Hasinger G, Altieri B, Arnaud M, Barcons X, Bergeron J, Brunner H et al. XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2001 Jan 1;365(1):L45-L50. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20000046
Hasinger, G. ; Altieri, B. ; Arnaud, M. ; Barcons, X. ; Bergeron, J. ; Brunner, H. ; Dadina, M. ; Dennerl, K. ; Ferrando, P. ; Finoguenov, A. ; Griffiths, R. E. ; Hashimoto, Y. ; Jansen, F. A. ; Lumb, D. H. ; Mason, K. O. ; Mateos, S. ; McMahon, R. G. ; Miyaji, T. ; Paerels, F. ; Page, M. J. ; Ptak, A. F. ; Sasseen, T. P. ; Scharte, N. ; Szokoly, G. P. ; Trümper, J. ; Turner, M. ; Warwick, R. S. ; Watson, M. G. / XMM-Newton observation of the lockman hole. I. The X-ray data. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2001 ; Vol. 365, No. 1. pp. L45-L50.
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AU - Barcons, X.

AU - Bergeron, J.

AU - Brunner, H.

AU - Dadina, M.

AU - Dennerl, K.

AU - Ferrando, P.

AU - Finoguenov, A.

AU - Griffiths, R. E.

AU - Hashimoto, Y.

AU - Jansen, F. A.

AU - Lumb, D. H.

AU - Mason, K. O.

AU - Mateos, S.

AU - McMahon, R. G.

AU - Miyaji, T.

AU - Paerels, F.

AU - Page, M. J.

AU - Ptak, A. F.

AU - Sasseen, T. P.

AU - Scharte, N.

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AU - Trümper, J.

AU - Turner, M.

AU - Warwick, R. S.

AU - Watson, M. G.

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N2 - We report on the first deep X-ray survey with the XMM-Newton observatory during the performance verification phase. The field of the Lockman Hole, one of the best studied sky areas over a very wide range of wavelengths, has been observed. A total of ∼100 ksec good exposure time has been accumulated. Combining the images of the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) detectors we reach a flux limit of 0.31, 1.4 and 2.4 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1, respectively in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 5-10 keV band. Within an off-axis angle of 10 arcmin we detect 148, 112 and 61 sources, respectively. The log(N)-log(S) relation in the three bands is compared with previous results. In particular in the 5-10 keV band these observations present the deepest X-ray survey ever, about a factor 20 more sensitive than the previous BeppoSAX observations. Using X-ray spectral diagnostics and the set of previously known, spectroscopically identified ROSAT sources in the field, the new sources can be classified. XMM-Newton detects a significant number (∼40%) of X-ray sources with hard, probably intrinsically absorbed X-ray spectra, confirming a prediction of the population synthesis models for the X-ray background.

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KW - Cosmology: diffuse radiation

KW - Galaxies: active

KW - Galaxies: quasars: general

KW - Surveys

KW - X-ray: galaxies

KW - X-rays: general

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