Writing measures and outcomes in clil and emi: A systematic review: Writing and Pedagogy

K.M. Graham, Z.R. Eslami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study utilizes a systematic review approach to examine current research in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and English-medium instruction (EMI). Studies were examined for their use of language-related and content-related writing measurement and outcomes. Findings on CLIL/EMI writing measurement shows that studies have utilized a variety of methods for measuring language, but measurement of the content dimension is limited. While some studies in the review combine multiple types of writing measures, CLIL writing research often does not simultaneously assess both the language and content dimensions of writing. For writing outcomes, the reviewed studies show CLIL/EMI generally equals or exceeds traditional language classrooms and that CLIL/EMI instruction leads toward growth in some but not all (i.e. accuracy), language-related metrics. However, regarding the content dimension, the findings are mixed and show CLIL/EMI writing generally does not communicate disciplinary content knowledge appropriately. It is recommended that future research gives more attention to measuring both the language and content dimensions of writing while also incorporating new methods for measuring discipline-specific content in writing. It is also recommended that instructors increase their language awareness and reconsider how disciplinary writing is taught in their CLIL/EMI classroom. © 2021, EQUINOX PUBLISHING.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)341-368
Number of pages28
JournalWrit. Pedagog.
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Content and language integrated learning
  • English learners
  • Second language writing
  • Systematic review
  • Writing measures


Dive into the research topics of 'Writing measures and outcomes in clil and emi: A systematic review: Writing and Pedagogy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this