WISC-IV and Clinical Validation of the Four- and Five-Factor Interpretative Approaches

Lawrence G. Weiss, Timothy Z. Keith, Jianjun Zhu, Hsinyi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to determine the constructs measured by the WISC-IV and the consistency of measurement across large normative and clinical samples. Competing higher order four- and five-factor models were analyzed using the WISC-IV normative sample and clinical subjects. The four-factor solution is the model published with the test manual. In the five-factor model, the POI differentiated into a visual-spatial factor (consisting of Block Design and Picture Completion) and a fluid reasoning factor (consisting of Matrix Reasoning and Picture Concepts, with and Arithmetic). The five-factor solution included Inductive Reasoning (IR), consisting of Matrix Reasoning and Picture Concepts, as a narrow ability subsumed under the FRI (Gf). When all 15 WISC-IV subtests were considered, both four- and five-factor models were suitable and showed close model-data fit. Further, both models generally demonstrated full factorial invariance between clinical and nonclinical samples. Interpretation of the fifth factor is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-131
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 1



  • Wechsler scales
  • fluid reasoning
  • measurement Invariance
  • quantitative reasoning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this